Much of the science associated with the cyber domain and cyberspace involves networks, for example, the Internet, computer and communication networks, social networks, information networks, military networks, and collaboration networks. These networks have been a focus of the research in the West Point Network Science Center for the nine years of its existence. We plan to provide The Cyber Defense Review with material (articles, blogs, and information posts) to connect the Army Cyber Institute with the Network Science Center, Army network researchers, the network science research and education communities, and provide an environment for new ideas and results.

Disclaimer: The articles and other content which appear in the Cyber Defense Review are unofficial expressions of opinion. The views expressed are those of the contributing authors and do not reflect the official position of the United States Military Academy, Department of the Army, United States Marine Corps, Department of the Navy, or Department of Defense.

Cyber Domain: Getting Ourselves Ready for Future Readiness and Conflict

The issue.  DoD has been trying to establish its plans, structures, processes, and systems to deal with its cybersecurity and operational issues for several years. These efforts have slowly evolved as DoD has clarified and understood its cyber mission. Given the latest proclamation of the cyber roles assigned to government agencies (in the Presidential Policy Directive 41), it is probably time to put together more definitive plans for the DoD cyber forces and the cyber duties associated with all units, service members, and DoD employees. Another recent document that helps DoD sort out its cyber roles comes from the Joint Operating Environment 2035 (JOE2035), subtitled The Joint Force in a Contested and Disordered World, published in 14 July 2016. Essentially, the President’s document assigns DoD to take care of DoD-related contested military cyber issues. The JOE2035 predicts there will be plenty to do by the cyber forces, and identifies a high-probability, almost continuous, context for future conflict in cyberspace by outlining the struggle to define and protect sovereignty in cyberspace for our military. The cyber domain is a growth area with the specter of continuous, sometimes intense, conflict for a long time. With the US depending heavily on the interdependent networks of information technology (Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, embedded processors and controllers) and the data, information, and knowledge that is stored and flows through and between these systems, the cyber domain is the place where a high-stakes competition has, is and will be taking place.   DoD is concerned about:  Growth of state- and non-state-sponsored cyber forces and capabilities. These organizations will have more advanced cyber warfare capabilities....

The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography

and The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography Simon Singh New York: Random House, 1999, 432 pp. ISBN 978-0-307-78784-2   The Code Book is about the mathematics and science of codes and ciphers throughout history. Singh specifically lists two purposes for this book. The first is to show the evolution of codes and ciphers, and the second is to demonstrate their relevance in today’s society. Throughout the eight chapters, he discusses the elements of complex ciphers and simplifies the mathematical details for a general audience. He enthusiastically presents stories surrounding ciphers such as who created them, who sought to break them, and if and how the codebreakers were successful. We, as student and instructor in a course entitled Networks for Cyber Operations, used this book as one of our texts in the Spring semester of 2016. To illustrate his first point, Singh shares stories about well-known ciphers such as those involving Mary Queen of Scots, the Beale Papers, and the Enigma. He uses Mary Queen of Scots to show the evolution of secret writing and the development of cryptography. He discusses how secret writing evolved into steganography and cryptography, how cryptography developed into transposition and substitution, and lastly, how substitution evolved into codes and ciphers. Additionally, he discusses the story behind the Beale Papers to introduce how codemakers use keys to encrypt their messages. Sharing the story of the Enigma Machine in World War II, he shows the evolution from encryption by hand to encryption by machine. Singh also reveals how codebreakers accomplished their work to demonstrate that as long as codemakers develop new...

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